Networking


Address Mask
Bit combination used to describe which portion of anaddress refers to the network or subnet and which partrefers to the host. Sometimes referred to simply as mask.also subnet mask.


Cache
A group of memory locations set aside for temporary storage ofdata, especially frequently-used data or data needing high speedretrieval by the CPU.


Encapsulation
The process of placing one protocol inside of another. Usuallyimplies that the encapsulated protocol was not originally intendedby its designers to be carried by the encapsulating protocol.


Ethernet
A specification for a transmission system including Layers 1 and2 of the OSI 7-layer model using the CSMA/CD access method.In common usage, "Ethernet" refers to both the DIX (DEC - Intel - Xerox) version of this specification or to the IEEE version, moreformally known as "802.3". The DIX version is distinguished bythe reference "Ethernet V.2".


Firewall
Router or access server, or several routers or access servers, designated as a buffer between any connected public networks and a private network. A firewall router uses access lists and other methods to ensure the security of the private network.


Gateway
A device that performs a protocol translation at the SessionLayer or higher. 2. Archaic. A TCP/IP router that routes packetsbetween different network numbers.

IP Address
32-bit address assigned to hosts using TCP/IP. An IP address belongs to one of five classes (A, B, C, D, or E) and is written as 4 octets separated with periods (dotted decimal format). Each address consists of a network number, an optional subnet work number, and a host number. The network and subnetwork numbers together are used for routing, while the host number is used to address an individual host within the network or subnetwork. A subnet mask is used to extract network and subnetwork information from the IP address. Also called an Internet address. See also IP and subnet mask.

Leased Line
Transmission line reserved by a communications carrier for the private use of a customer. A leased line is a type of dedicated line. See also dedicated line.

Maximum Burst
Specifies the largest burst of data above the insured rate that will be allowed temporarily on an ATM PVC but will not be dropped at the edge by the traffic policing function, even if it exceeds the maximum rate. This amount of traffic will be allowed only temporarily; on average, the traffic source needs to be within the maximum rate. Specified in bytes or cells.

Maximum Rate
Maximum total data throughput allowed on a given virtual circuit, equal to the sum of the insured and uninsured traffic from the traffic source. The uninsured data might be dropped if the network becomes congested. The maximum rate, which cannot exceed the media rate, represents the highest data throughput the virtual circuit will ever deliver, measured in bits or cells per second.


Subnetwork
In IP networks, a network sharing a particular subnet address. Subnetworks are networks arbitrarily segmented by a network administrator in order to provide a multilevel, hierarchical routing structure while shielding the subnetwork from the addressing complexity of attached networks. Sometimes called a subnet. 2. In OSI networks, a collection of ESs and ISs under the control of a single administrative domain and using a single network access protocol.

Latency
In data transmission, the delay in transmission time that occurs while information remains in a device's buffered memory (such as a bridge or router) before it can be sent along its path.

Bandwidth
In analog communications, the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies available in the band. In digital communications, bandwidth is loosely used to refer to the information-carrying capacity of a network or component of a network.

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